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This brief guide is designed to help make your visit to the 
Toledo Museum of Art pleasant and interesting. You may know 
just how you wish to spend your time, whether you are to be here 
only a few minutes or an entire day. Should you be unfamiliar 
with the Museum and its collections, this booklet will be your 
personal guide on a short tour. 

The Museum is arranged so that you may follow the devel- 
opment of art in general chronological sequence. As you enter 
the building, turn left. The Egyptian Gallery and Classic Court 
exhibit the art of ancient man. Much of man's artistic heritage 
may be noted in the fine glass collection in the Museum, and the 
history of the printed word is presented in the George W. Stevens 
Gallery. The Gothic Hall and the Cloister tell in tapestry, stone 
and glass, enamel and ivory much of the story of the Middle Ages. 
Paintings, sculpture, and the decorative arts continue the story of 
man's artistic development. 

How can you best enjoy the Museum's collections? Take your 
time and do not attempt to see too much on your first visit. The 
selection in this guide will aid you in seeing a few of the finest 
examples of paintings, sculpture, and decorative arts. All of them 
rank with the masterpieces preserved in the great museums of 
Europe and America, and many are world famous. Some of them 
will appeal to you more than others do. The artists and the crafts- 
men who produced them had a message to convey, but they may 
be speaking a language which we do not readily understand. If we 
look with open minds and try to fathom the meaning of the artist, 
we may find beauties and joys at first hidden to us. Return again 
when you can. All art has a story to tell and pleasure to bring 
into our lives. 

In 1901, The Toledo Museum of Art was founded by Edward 
Drummond Libbey and other civic leaders. Its first home was in 
rented rooms in the Gardner Building, from which it moved to a 
remodelled residence at Madison and 13th Streets. The present 
Museum building was constructed in three stages: the central 
building was erected in 1910-1912, enlarged in 1926, and two 
wings, each more spacious than the enlarged central building, 
were opened in 1933. The finest white Vermont marble was used 
in the construction of this Classical building. 

The Toledo Museum of Art, one of America's greatest art 
museums, covers approximately three acres with eight acres of 
floor space. One wing of the building houses the Peristyle, where 
concerts by some of the world's leading orchestras and soloists are 
held. The other wing contains the School of Design, famous for 
its free Saturday art classes for children. Pioneering in the field of 
museum education for children and adults, instruction in painting, 
drawing, and crafts has been conducted at the Museum since 1903. 
These classes were formally organized into the School of Design 
in 1919. 

The Art Museum serves as a great community cultural and 
educational center in the fields of art and music. The various 
services and attractions are for the enjoyment of all of the citizens 
of Toledo and travellers from far and near. The Museum and its 
collections are planned to make your visits enjoyable. If you have 
any questions to ask or any suggestions to make, they are welcome. 
May we invite you to return again soon? 

GALLERY 1, King Tanwetamani, 
Egyptian, 25th Dynasty, 715-656 BC 

Life after death was of the 
greatest importance to the Egyp- 
tians, and much of their art was 
associated with the journey into 
the hereafter. The Egyptian 
Pharaohs commended themselves 
to their gods and immortalized 
themselves on earth with monu- 
mental buildings and large, im- 
pressive portraits. The impor- 
tance of the subject often deter- 
mined the size of the sculpture. 
Rigidity of pose was determined 
by ancient tradition. 

GALLERY 1, Seated Figure, Egyp- 
tian, 5-6th Dynasties, 2565- 2258 BC 

Egyptian history and chrono- 
logy are divided into dynasties 
or terms of rule by the Pharaohs. 
The 5th Dynasty was Egypt's 
Golden Age of sculpture, and the 
Seated Figure dates from this 
period. Painstakingly carved from 
limestone and painted, simplicity 
gives this small figure great mon- 

GALLERY 2, Head of a Man, Cyp- 
riote, 450-440 BC 

GALLERY 2, Head of a Girl, Greek, 
ca. 325 BC, School of Praxiteles 

Man was the Greek sculptor's ever-present model, and the 
history of ancient Greek sculpture is the story of striving to express 
the concept of perfect man. Prior to the full flowering of Greek 
art in the Golden Age (450-400 BC), the sculptors carved figures 
immediately recognizable yet touched with a primitive quality. 

The Head of a Man is characteristic of the early period when 
man was shown as an ideal representation and not an actual per- 
son. The eyes, nose, and beard are simplified and used as patterns, 
illustrating the qualities of Archaic sculpture that flourished on 
the Greek mainland at an earlier date. 

The Head of a Girl indicates the advances made by Greek 
sculptors in their knowledge of the anatomy of the head and face. 
Praxiteles and his followers were especially adept at indicating the 
smoothness of flesh, the reposeful attitude, the inner vitality. This 
bust is one of the three greatest examples of the period in America. 

Realism characterizes Roman art. The Roman sculptor was 
an original, unique artist, a man who could carve precise and per- 
fect forms. Animals were frequently used as subject matter by the 
Romans, perhaps due to their sacrificial uses, and here the sculptor 
lovingly differentiated the qualities of wool and horn. 

From the Egyptians who invented it, the Romans learned the 
art of glassmaking and developed many interesting and beautiful 
forms. As a less expensive substitute for the natural cameo, they 
discovered that a synthetic one could be made of glass by coating 
one color of glass with a layer of another and cutting away the 
upper layer with the cameo-maker's tools. The Libbey-Toledo 
cameo vase is one of perhaps a dozen examples approaching com- 
lete vessels of this nature remaining in the world today. 

GALLERY 2, Libbey-Toledo Amphora, Ro- 
man, 1st Century AD 

GALLERY 2, Ram, Roman, 1st Century AD 

When the Saracens took over the Roman East, they inherited 
the art of glassmaking. While the French were producing the 
great stained glass windows through which the sun might illumine 
their cathedrals to the glory of God, the Saracens were making 
enamelled lamps to illumine their mosques, also to the glory of 
God. They applied the same enamel technique to the making of 
other vessels for decorative, as well as useful purposes. One of the 
most glorious of these is the Toledo Flagon. 

Through their commercial outposts in the Mediterranean, 
the Venetians borrowed the technique of glassmaking and enam- 
elling from the Saracens, and, from the 15th to the 17th cen- 
turies, were the great glassmakers of the world. When Columbus 
was seeking the Indies, the most famous glassmaking organization 
of Venice was the Beroviero family. They made the beautiful blue 
goblet and decorated it in enamel with a "Triumph of Fame," 
a subject drawn from Petrarch's poems. 

GALLERY 2, Toledo Flagon, 
Syrian, ca. 1300 

GALLERY 4, Goblet, Venetian, 

ca. 1475, Work-shop of Angelo Beroviero 


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GALLERY 7, GEORGE W. STEVENS GALLERY, Gutenberg Bible, 1450-1455 

George W. Stevens, the Museum's first director, established 
the gallery which bears his name to show man's record of his 
thoughts and deeds from the earliest hieroglyphs of the Egyptians 
to the finest printing of today. In it may be read the story of the 
development of the alphabet, from its birth in Egypt to the form 
which it took under the Romans and which we use today. Included 
also are beautiful illuminated manuscripts, pages from the Guten- 
berg Bible, and such great rarities as the First Principles of New 
England Communion, produced on the first press established in 
the United States; the Benedict Arnold broadside; and that most 
interesting work, John Eliot's translation of the Bible into the 
Algonquin dialect, a work which no one can read today. 

GOTHIC HALL, St. John (detail), 
French, ca. 1250-1300 

When even kings could neither 
read nor write, pictures in stone, 
glass, ivory, tapestry, enamel and 
paint spoke a language that all 
could understand. The Church 
employed artists and craftsmen 
to carry their message to the 
people, to ornament cathedral 
and chapel, vestments and fur- 
nishings, to bring beauty as well 
as religion into the lives of all. 
The statue of St. John in the Gothic Hall is representative of 
Gothic stone sculpture used to enhance the great cathedrals. At 
one time this figure was brightly painted, and you can still see 
some traces of color on it. In the castles, the thick woolen tapes- 
tries served the useful purpose of subdividing great rooms and, 
hung against walls, kept out some of the winter's cold. Here, 
secular subjects were appropriate. The two scenes, Grape Harvest 
and Wine Making, French, ca. 1470, in the Gothic Hall portray 
some of the winemaking activities in France about 500 years ago. 
The tools of the workmen are still seen today in the wineproducing 
areas of France ; the method of payment shown in one of them has 
produced an expression which we still use: "Cash on the barrel- 


THE CLOISTER, French Romanesque and Gothic, 12-14th Centuries 

When a new monastery was to be built, the first requirement 
was a good water supply. Once the well was located, the monastic 
buildings were constructed. Around the well itself a colonnade, 
roofed over, offered open space for exercise in inclement weather, 
and, when stone replaced wooden columns, their capitals gave 
opportunity for distinguished sculpture. Cloisters, as well as cathed- 
rals, were frequently built over a period of centuries, employing the 
changing styles of architecture as the years went by. To show such 
a progression, the Toledo Museum of Art has secured colonnades 
from three times and places. 

The oldest is from St. Michel de Cuxa, France, and was 
probably put up in the 12th century. The next, from the Abbey 
of St. Pons near Toulouse, was built in the 12th and 13th cen- 
turies. Its capitals represent scenes from the life of St. Pons and 
from the Old Testament, notably the crossing of the Red Sea. 
The third, from the Cloister - of Pontaut, is later, about the 14th 
century, as shown by the pointed arches, and belonged to an Order 
which permitted secular subjects on its capitals. The fourth side 
is constructed of wood, as were the colonnades of much earlier 
date than these stone ones. 


Ivory Tabernacle (detail), French, 14th 

Portable altars and religious figures of enamel and gilt bronze 
have been great treasures since they were created about 600 years 
ago. The illustrated Ivory Tabernacle, exhibited in the Cloister, 
was made to be carried perhaps on a lady's long trip, for a knight's 
crusade, or to be placed in a small chapel. 

One of the finest Gothic tapestries, the Entombment, ca. 1500, 
resembles painting styles of about the same date in its crispness 
and vivid coloring. This French tapestry was probably made for a 
private chapel of the de Mailly family, where its small size and 
religious subject would ,be appropriate to the function of the 

Entombment Tapestry (detail), French, ca. 1500 


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GALLERY 23, Claude Lorrain, Landscape with Nymph and Satyr Dancing, 
French, ca. 1640-1650 

French painting in the 17th and 18th centuries includes many 
of the greatest names in art history: Poussin, Claude Lorrain, 
Watteau, Chardin, Boucher, and Fragonard, to mention but a 
few. Claude Lorrain was orphaned at an early age, apprenticed 
to a pastry cook and wood engraver, and lived in Italy for many 
years. He was impressed by the picturesque Italian countryside 
and the ancient ruins he found there. Primarily a landscape 
painter, Claude combines atmospheric mists and dignified Classic 
architecture in this painting, forming a balanced composition full 
of evening sunlight and lush greenery. His paintings were a great 
inspiration to later artists. 


Francois Boucher seems the most complete incarnation of the 
French taste in the reign of Louis XV. In contrast to its Baroque 
predecessor, the style of his time, characterized by extreme grace, 
lyricism, and delicate beauty, is known as Rococo. This pastoral 
scene sharply contrasts with Claude's Classic landscape. While 
the Rococo artists did not completely disavow the heroic past, they 
much preferred to paint the water mills and rustic folk of the 
countryside to the Classic ruins that were popular earlier. 

Rubens was not only a great artist but was also an important 
public figure in his day. At one time he served as ambassador to 
Spain and England for his country, Flanders (now Belgium and 
Holland). This magnificent picture was painted about 13 years 
after the Pilgrims came to America. Frequently the beautiful wife 
of Rubens, Helene Fourment, and their son posed as models for his 
figures or were the inspiration for his paintings. The saints in flow- 
ing, richly colored robes repeat Helene's features; a touching 
tribute to the painter's happy marriage. The painting was done 
for a church in Malines, Belgium, and was originally hung above 
the altar of St. Barbara. In looking at it, we should try to associate 
it with the interior of a great church, dimly lit with candles and 
daylight filtering through the church windows. 

GALLERY 23, Francois Boucher, The Mill at Charenton, French, 1758 


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GREAT GALLERY, Peter Paul Rubens, The Child Jesus Crowning St. Cath- 
erine, Flemish, 1633 

GREAT GALLERY, Rembrandt van Rijn, Self- 
Portrait, Dutch, 1631 

GREAT GALLERY, Hans Holbein, Catherine 
Howard, German, 1540 

In the 17th century, Rembrandt explored new, dramatic 
effects of light and composition. This Dutch artist recorded his 
own features many times, and he loved strange, exotic costumes. 
In his self-portraits he often would dress himself as a foreign noble- 
man or merchant. This masterful study of light and shade was 
done when he was only 25 years old, but already an accomplished 
artist. Rembrandt's life alternated between happiness and despair, 
wealth and bankruptcy. His timeless art is the graphic testimony 
that established him as one of the world's greatest artists. 

Holbein was a favored painter in the court of Henry VIII, 
King of England. There he painted the King and members of the 
circle of dignitaries who passed their days at the Royal Palaces 
of Windsor and Hampton Court. Henry's fifth wife, Catherine 
Howard, met her tragic fate on the executioner's block in 1542 
when she was 23 years old. The detailed, exact likeness was always 
sought by Holbein. This painting is a masterpiece of fine brush- 
work, subtle coloring, and the characterization so essential to good 


The great period of British painting is the 18th century, when 
artists such as Hogarth, Reynolds, and Gainsborough painted the 
English countryside and the English people. Thomas Gains- 
borough, like his fellow artists, earned his livelihood as a portrait 
painter, but enjoyed painting landscapes. Paintings of this type 
were called "fancy pictures" as they implied something apart from 
the usual or basic work, the portrait. Gainsborough loved to paint 
the humble country folk about their everyday tasks in the misty 
English roads or pastures. While this scene may not be an actual 
geographic location, there is an authenticity to it that identifies 
it as specifically British. 

GREAT GALLERY, Thomas Gainsborough, The Road from Market, Eni. 
lish, ca. 1770 






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GREAT GALLERY, Piero di Cosimo, Adoration of the Child, Italian, ca. 1490 

Amazing changes occurred in art, philosophy, and science in 
the 15th and 16th centuries. This Renaissance or rebirth in Europe 
replaced the narrow investigation of Medieval man and brought 
secularism into art to a much greater degree. Man became in- 
creasingly interested in the joys and virtues of life, the beauties of 
nature, and scientific investigation. In Italy, where the Renaissance 
developed to its highest point, religious subjects in painting still 
prevailed, since the Church was the chief patron of art. One of 
their most accomplished artists, Piero di Cosimo, was a man of 
eccentric habits and a recluse who exemplifies in his art the taste 
of the time. Naturalness and serenity fill this painting. The crisp 
outline of perfect figures, the subdued color scheme, and the gently 
receding landscape are Renaissance elements contributing to the 
order and tranquility of this tondo, or circular painting. 


Born in Crete and trained in Venice, Domenico Theotocop- 
oulos, called El Greco (the Greek), became the leading artist in 
16th century Spain. He is one of the most mystical interpreters of 
religious history. He often painted altarpieces and canvases for 
the King of Spain, Philip II, the man who launched the Spanish 
Armada. The atmosphere of Spain charged El Greco with emo- 
tion and mystery. His figures are elongated, wrapped in unreality, 
and vividly drawn and colored. He made many startling contri- 
butions to painting, becoming one of the first to fuse natural ele- 
ments and emotion to express a theme. 

GREAT GALLERY, El Greco, Christ at Gethsemane, Spanish, ca. 1590-1598 

GALLERY 26, Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, French, 1786 

The French Revolution occurred shortly after our own 
struggle for independence in the late 18th century. Jacques-Louis 
David unconsciously identified himself with the French Revolution, 
for in the Oath of the Horatii he manifested qualities of patriotism 
and devotion proposed by the Revolutionaries. The subject is a fic- 
tional scene suggested by ancient mythology and a French drama. It 
involves three Roman brothers who were forced to swear to their 
father that they would kill their enemies, the Curiatii. David's 
realistic painting created a sensation among the French people, 
who appreciated its intellectual, stoic appeal. During the reign of 
Napoleon, David became official painter to that emperor. 


Millet, most famous for his painting, The Angelus, painted 
peasants and working people. He is a major contributor with 
Daumier and Courbet to realistic painting. An epidemic and 
political troubles urged Millet and others to flee to the forests of 
Barbizon, where he lived for the rest of his life. There he painted 
humble subjects. The human element dominates this painting, 
and the landscape is secondary to the labors of the quarriers. Mil- 
let's habit of suggesting the solidity of the figure and the forthright 
presentation of a crude subject had great appeal to artists of the 
later 19th century, such as Vincent van Gogh. 

GALLERY 28, Jean-Francois Millet, The Quarriers, French, ca. 1847-1849 


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GALLERY 29 B, Vincent van Gogh, The Wheatfield, Dutch, 1888 

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New uses of light, color, and design were important to the 
artists of the later 19th century. Many of them painted pictures 
that simulated impressions of landscapes seen in bright sunlight 
through half-closed eyes. Others, like Van Gogh, attempted to 
blend vivid, fresh colors into patterns or powerful designs of great 
originality. Applying the paint in thick strokes, he suggests the 
heat of summer and the rich hues of the French fields with a min- 
imum of detail. All of Van Gogh's colorful paintings were pro- 
duced in the last few years of his short, bitter life. 


Thomas Cole contributed to the development of 19th cen- 
tury American painting. He was one of the first to recognize the 
beauty of the American landscape, and he awakened interest in 
the charm of this new country. He and other painters were 
leaders of a group of artists that often used the Hudson River as 
inspiration for their landscapes. Imaginative and fantastic sub- 
jects were frequently painted by Cole, as in the Architect's Dream, 
done for Ithiel Town, an American architect. In the picture, he 
summarized the world's architectural styles as they might be ima- 
gined by a dreaming architect. 



from this library 

GALLERY 32, Thomas Cole, The Architect's Dream, American, 1840 

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